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Solid-State Adjustment Processes Actuality Developed for NASA Accomplishment Programs Could Decidedly Abate Workboat Artifact CostsWhether it is for a tug boat, burden vessel, or an adopted accumulation ship, abundant of the workboat artifact industry is amid forth the Southern Coast of the U.S. But a appointment to any one of the workboat accessories in that breadth (or any added in the country) would acknowledge aged and ancient artifact processes acclimated seventy years ago. The workboat accomplishment action is actual expensive, activity intensive, and has not absolutely afflicted aback World War II. Conceivably it is time to go aback to the cartoon lath and redesign the workboat accomplishment action from the arena up so that new solid-state adjustment processes and added aerospace technologies actuality developed at NASA’s Marshall Amplitude Flight Center (MSFC) can be activated to abate costs and abatement accomplishment schedules. Although NASA adjustment development focuses on the aerospace discipline, abounding applications abide for these aforementioned solid-state bond processes in the amphibian industry.  

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Solid-state adjustment technologies at NASA’s MSFC accept bogus cogent advances is abutment of NASA aerospace accomplishment applications. In accession to accustomed abrasion activity adjustment (C-FSW) and self-reacting abrasion activity adjustment (SR-FSW), both of which are acclimated in Amplitude Launch Arrangement (SLS) cryotank manufacturing, MSFC is additionally developing the accelerated activity bond (USW) and the thermal activity bond (TSW) processes. These two processes are above to FSW in that the heating, stirring, and accomplishment elements are decoupled to acquiesce absolute ascendancy of anniversary element. This allows for greater action control. The action advantages of all three solid accompaniment processes (FSW, USW, and TSW) aftereffect from the actuality that the solid-state bond action takes abode in the artificial appearance beneath the melting point of the abstracts actuality joined.  This precludes any achievability of alliance defects. The allowances accommodate the adeptness to accompany abstracts that are difficult to admixture weld, for archetype 2XXX and 7XXX aluminum alloys, magnesium, and copper. Solid-state adjustment processes can use purpose-designed accessories or adapted absolute apparatus apparatus technology, and they are additionally acceptable for automation and are adjustable for apprentice use.

Other advantages are as follows:• Low baloney and shrinkage, alike in connected welds.• Accomplished automatic backdrop in fatigue, tensile, and bend tests.• Distinct canyon welds.• No arc or fumes.• No porosity.• No spatter.• Adeptness to accomplish in all positions.• Activity efficiency.• One activity apparatus can about be acclimated for up to 1000 m (3280 ft) of bond breadth in 6XXX alternation aluminum alloys.• No accompaniment wire required.• No gas careful for adjustment aluminum.• Some altruism to amiss bond preparations; attenuate oxide layers can be accepted.• No grinding, brushing, or alkali appropriate in accumulation production.• Adeptness to bond aluminum and nut of >75 mm (3 inches) array in one pass.• Once adjustment ambit are established, very, actual few bond aliment required.1Thermal Activity Welding

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Figure 2  TSW Gantry Apparatus Acclimated for Titanium Adjustment at MSFC. Image: NASABefore the addition of the TSW process, it should be acicular out that FSW is a aing technology that is accretion in its appliance to amplitude structures as a solid-state aing adjustment with collective backdrop above to admixture adjustment joints. FSW methods are primarily associated with high-strength aluminum alloys such as the Al-Li alloys acclimated to accomplish cryogenic tanks, acknowledging structures, and rocket assembly components. There is aerial absorption in accretion FSW aing methods to higher-strength and higher-temperature alloys to accommodate rocket agent apparatus and added high-temperature abstracts applications for space.  However aerial frictional armament and aerial activity adjustment temperatures accomplish this a difficult challenge.

NASA has developed an avant-garde aberration of the FSW action alleged Thermal Activity Adjustment (TSW), a action that introduces added calefaction to the workpiece absolute of the frictional heating amid the activity apparatus and the metal. A description of the TSW action appears in Figure 1 and it shows the differences amid the FSW and TSW processes.  In FSW, the active RPM of the activity tool, the heating from the accept abrading on the apparent of the bond joint, and the compressive accomplishment force from the accept cannot be decoupled.  TSW decouples the three action elements and allows absolute ascendancy of each.  The activity apparatus RPM is apart controlled as able-bodied as the compressive accomplishment endless from the high and lower ascendancy plates.  The heating is apart controlled appliance an consecration coil.  Because of the absolute ascendancy of the action elements/parameters,  the absolute account of TSW is abnormally biased to thicker-section bowl actual and college backbone calefaction aggressive alloys (i.e. titanium, steels, Inconels, etc.) area there is a conflict amid the activity ambit appropriate to sustain frictional heating and the activity ambit adapted for the hot alive regimes of the alloy. Not to say that TSW’ing would not be benign for adjustment aluminum.  It is able of adjustment all aluminum alloys whether it is attenuate bedding or thicker sectioned aluminum, all in a distinct pass.

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The development of the TSW action has led to the artifact of a all-encompassing machine, apparent in Figure 2.  It was acclimated to abutment antecedent assignment adjourned by the Defense Avant-garde Research Projects Bureau (DARPA) and Office of Naval Research (ONR). Deliverables for this activity was to auspiciously authenticate the distinct canyon aing of .500-in-thick (25.2-mm-thick) commercially authentic (CP) titanium and Ti 6-4 ELI.Since the TSW action de-couples the stirring, heating and accomplishment functions of the FSW’ing action and allows absolute ascendancy of anniversary action element, atypical and actual altered applications/capabilities can be accomplished appliance the TSW action over the FSW process.  Since the TSW action agreement uses non-rotating ascendancy plates (instead of a alternating accept in the FSW process) to administer accomplishment endless to the plasticized bond nugget, it is accessible to anatomy the high and lower containments plates to a specific, altered geometry.  This was done in the referenced assignment completed for DARPA/ONR.  One of the deliverables was a hexagonally shaped anatomy which represented a sub-scale gun turret sub-component.  Figure 3 shows one of the angled welds while Figure 4 shows the completed part.  Note that the bond collective basic is a 60 amount bend and the activity apparatus travelled through the angled bond collective basic in a distinct pass.  Another appliance for which the TSW action would be ideal is for the adjustment of lap joints.

Another advantage of the TSW action is the adequacy to bond appliance absolute time temperature control.  This requires absolute absolute time ecology and ascendancy of the temperature in the bond zone. An archetype would be the adjustment of titanium area it is adorable to advance the bond asset temperature beneath the beta transus temperature of about 890C. (1634F).   In adjustment to advance this bond asset  temperature, the able consecration braid temperature charge be counterbalanced with the deformational heating to assure the ambition temperature is accomplished and maintained during the absolute aing action to aftermath a akin microstructure.  In so doing, an ascribe ambition temperature of 870C (1600F) is entered into the ascendancy system.  The consecration braid heats the bond workpiece to the ascribe temperature, at which time, the workpiece moves amid the high and lower ascendancy plates which catch bottomward on the workpiece with a adapted accomplishment force.  The activity apparatus again begins active the bond joint.  If the temperature sensor sees the bond asset temperature abatement beneath the ascribe ambition temperature, the biking amount slows and/or the activity apparatus RPM increases and/or the consecration braid ability is increased.  These three events, either absolute or in tandem, will access bond asset temperature.  If the ascribe ambition temperature is exceeded, the biking amount will access and/or the activity apparatus RPM will abatement and/or consecration braid ability will abatement all of which accept a cooling aftereffect on the bond nugget.  One of the best important abstracts credibility about to accomplished welds is alive that a connected temperature is maintained during the bond with little fluctuation.  

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Ultrasonic Activity Welding

Figure 1  Schematic assuming aberration amid FSW, TSW and USW. Image: NASAUSW is agnate to TSW’ing in that the active RPM, heating, and compressional force of the ascendancy bowl accept been de-coupled for greater action control.  It is altered than TSW and FSW in that accelerated activity is chip into the alternating activity apparatus and the non-rotating ascendancy plate.  Figure 1 shows a schematic of the action and Figure 5 shows the USW ancestor amid at MSFC.  The allowances of appliance the USW action accommodate distinct canyon welds in aluminum and calefaction aggressive alloys, decreased attempt armament in the Z axis, decreased abrasion armament in the X axis, decreased microburst armament in the X axis, added biking rates, and added activity apparatus life.

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Isogrid and Orthogrid StructuresManufacture of Amplitude Launch Arrangement (SLS) rocket hardware, primarily cryogenic catchbasin structures, takes advantage of the above backbone and acerbity begin in Isogrid and Orthogrid structures. Figure 6 shows integrally stiffened Isogrid and Orthogrid structures. Both Isogrid and Orthogrid structures accommodate chip stiffeners that artlessly accept aberrant strength-to-weight or stiffness-to-weight ratios for abounding applications besides aerospace propellant tanks. Isogrid is able to bear both compressive and angle loads, authoritative it ideal for amplitude and aerospace applications. Orthogrid has agnate allowances to Isogrid, about it differs in agreement of its structural arrangement – the stiffening ribs use a aboveboard or ellipsoidal cossack arrangement rather than triangular.  Both self-stiffened configurations are acclimated area low weight, stiffness, backbone and accident altruism are important.

Figure 6: Orthogrid and Isogrid integrally stiffened structures. Image: NASAUsing NASA Technologies for Amphibian ApplicationsApplying aerospace technologies to amphibian applications would absolutely be a challenge.  A “bottoms-up” access would accept to be implemented alpha with accent and abortion assay which would advance to basic bark designs.  New baiter bark designs could focus on the aishment of hundreds of structural stiffeners, appropriately abbreviation activity and assay costs significantly.  The new designs would acquiesce the use of new avant-garde solid accompaniment bond processes and materials; the aforementioned ones acclimated in NASA’s amplitude accouterments accomplishment and R&D programs such as the Amplitude Launch Arrangement Program.  Cost account assay and barter studies would advance to the break-even point for new technology beverage into the amphibian industry. A accomplishment ancestor affirmation commodity could be bogus and activated assuming the amount accumulation allowances of automatic solid accompaniment distinct canyon welds with far above backbone than chiral admixture welds, as able-bodied as added amount accumulation and absolute agenda impacts appliance automatic absolute time bond assay processes.Recognizing avant-garde accomplishment processes and techniques are acclimated and actuality developed for aerospace applications in the U.S. aerospace industry, conceivably the amphibian industry area should investigate the technologies categorical in this commodity as able-bodied as added avant-garde abstracts and processes accessible to improve shipbuilding efforts.  Possible pathways to addition accommodate consortiums, partnerships and added co-development arrange that can focus on amphibian accomplishment applications.Due to bound space, this commodity has been abbreviated and touches on the highlights of technology acclimated and developed for NASA accomplishment programs.  For added abundant information, acquaintance Mr. Sammy Nabors, Technology Transfer Program, Marshall Amplitude Flight Center, 256-544-5226.

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1  The FSW action was acclimated in the External Catchbasin Accomplishment Program in abutment of the Amplitude Shuttle Program.   FSW was acclimated to complete longitudinal welds in the aftermost six aqueous hydrogen (LH) and aqueous oxygen (LOX) tanks.  The alone accepted FSW birthmark occurred in accomplishment back the ability went off bisected way into a twenty bottom LH catchbasin weld.  After Actual Review Lath (MRB) disposition, it was absitively to authorize a FSW adjustment technique, thus, preventing the auctioning of the aqueous hydrogen tank

About the Author:  Jeff DingJeff Ding began his career at NASA’s Marshall Amplitude Flight Center in June, 1986.  His apprenticeship includes a B.S. in Biology, Bowling Green Accompaniment University 1976, B.S. Adjustment Engineering, The Ohio Accompaniment University 1986, and a Masters in Science, University of Tennessee 1993.  He brought the abrasion activity adjustment (FSW) action to the NASA bureau in 1995/1996 time anatomy back he anchored a 14 ton Kearney and Trecker Horizontal arid comminute and adapted it to NASA’s aboriginal FSW system.  He completed his aboriginal FSW welds November 1996.  He connected FSW development as able-bodied as accelerated activity bond (USW) and thermal activity bond (TSW) aback 1996 and has authored 13 U.S. patents in solid accompaniment adjustment technology.  

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